Kay Voges

Kay Voges (* 14. Mai 1972 in Düsseldorf) ist ein deutscher Schauspiel- und Opern-Regisseur und seit der Spielzeit 2010/2011 Intendant des Schauspiels am Theater Dortmund.

Voges begann seine Theaterkarriere 1996 als Regieassistent am Theater Oberhausen. 1999 inszenierte er dort sein erstes Stück „Flußpferde“ von Anneli Mäkeläe. Von 1999 bis 2003 war Kay Voges Teil der künstlerischen Leitung am Theater Oberhausen. Ab 2003 war er als freier Regisseur an verschiedenen Theatern beschäftigt, darunter am Staatstheater Darmstadt, am Theater Magdeburg an den Städtischen Bühnen Münster, am Theater Bonn, am Staatstheater Kassel, am Schlosstheater Moers und am Staatsschauspiel Dresden. Wichtige Arbeiten dieser Jahre waren Ein Sommernachtstraum von Shakespeare / Mendelssohn Bartholdy und Tartuffe von Molière (beide in Dresden), „Kränk“ von Martin Heckmanns (Kassel), „The Making of B-Movie“ von Albert Ostermaier (Darmstadt), die Uraufführung von „Unser Lied. Nibelungendestillat“ von Helmut Krausser und Bertolt Brechts „Der aufhaltsame Aufstieg des Arturo Ui“ (beide Bonn) sowie Lessings Emilia Galotti und Miss Sara Sampson (in Bonn und Magdeburg) und die Uraufführung von „Sowas in der Art“ von Terézia Mora (Ruhrtriennale). 2005 gründete er zusammen mit dem Dramaturgen Klaus Schmidt das freie Theater neue bühne krefeld.

Seit der Spielzeit 2010/2011 ist Kay Voges Intendant am Schauspiel Dortmund. Dort inszenierte er zahlreiche Stücke und Stoff-Bearbeitungen, u. a. Woyzeck, Der Meister und Margarita, „Einige Nachrichten an das All“ von Wolfram Lotz, Endspiel (Beckett), Das Fest in der Bearbeitung von Alexander Kerlin sowie die Multimedia-Performance und Stückentwicklung „DAS GOLDENE ZEITALTER – 100 Wege dem Schicksal die Show zu stehlen“. Voges’ Dortmunder Arbeiten wurden wiederholt ausgezeichnet: „Einige Nachrichten an das All“ erhielt den Hauptpreis „Beste Regie“ beim , der Film zur Inszenierung gewann 2014 den Preis für die beste Regie beim St. Petersburg und den zweiten Preis in der Kategorie „Experimental Film“ beim Los Angeles.

Für seine Inszenierung von Das Fest wurde Voges für den deutschen Theaterpreis Der Faust 2013 in der Kategorie „Regie Schauspiel“ nominiert. Dies war auch die erste Inszenierung, die sich den eigens konzipierten Regeln des Dogmas 20_13 verpflichtete – einem vom Schauspiel Dortmund veröffentlichten Manifest, dass sich für eine engere und unmittelbarere Verzahnung zwischen Theater- und Filmwelten aussprach.

Voges ist bei seinen Arbeiten auch als Autor und Co-Autor tätig, so z. B. 2008 mit „ALICE //. .und verdau dich selbst Sehnsucht du! // Eine Expedition“ im Schlosstheater Moers und 2013 mit „DAS GOLDENE ZEITALTER – 100 Wege dem Schicksal die Show zu stehlen“ am Schauspiel Dortmund, beide zusammen mit Alexander Kerlin. Weitere Eigenproduktionen waren „DIE SHOW“, ein fiktiver Fernsehabend in Anlehnung an Das Millionenspiel, sowie „DIE BORDERLINE PROZESSION“.

2013 feierte Voges mit der Inszenierung von Richard Wagners Tannhäuser und der Sängerkrieg auf Wartburg an der Oper Dortmund sein Debüt als Opernregisseur. 2015 folgte seine zweite Oper, Der Freischütz, an der Staatsoper Hannover. Diese löste einen handfesten Theaterskandal aus und nötigte die Hannoveraner CDU dazu, von „unsäglichem Kulturverlust zu Gunsten vermeintlich wichtiger Dekonstruktion, angeblich gegenwartsbezogener Kontextualisierung und offenbar sensationsgetriebener Einmaleffekte“ zu sprechen.

2015 erhielt das Schauspiel Dortmund unter Voges’ Intendanz den zweiten Platz in der Jahreskritikerumfrage von Theater heute als Theater des Jahres, zusammen mit der Berliner Schaubühne sowie dem Maxim-Gorki-Theater.

Andrew Barclay Walker

Sir Andrew Barclay Walker, 1st Baronet (15 December 1824 – 27 February 1893) was a brewer and Liverpool Councillor.

Walker was born the son of Peter Walker at Auchinflower, Ayrshire, and was educated at Ayr Academy and at the Liverpool Institute.

He followed his father into brewing. In 1879, on the death of his father, he gained control of the business and in 1890 he turned it into a public company, Walkers of Warrington. Several pubs in Liverpool and the northwest of England still carry the slogan „Walkers Warrington Ale“ in their frosted glass.

He was a Justice of the Peace for Ayrshire and a Deputy Lieutenant of Lancashire. He was elected Lord Mayor of Liverpool for 1873 and 1876 and appointed High Sheriff of Lancashire for 1886–87.

He married Eliza, the eldest daughter of John Reid, of Limekilns, Fife. They had 6 sons and two daughters, including John Reid Walker and William Walker, 1st Baron Wavertree (both renowned racehorse breeders).

His youngest daughter Ethel Lisette married on 3rd February 1897 the 9th. Earl of Kingston in 1897, and they took up residence in Kilronan Castle, Co. Roscommon. Sir Andrew later married Maude Okeover, the daughter of Haughton Charles Okeover; they had no children.

He built the Walker Art Gallery which is named after him and donated it to the City of Liverpool. For this, and other good works, he was knighted in 1877 and created Baronet Walker, of Gateacre, co. Lancaster in 1886.

Sir Andrew Barclay Walker was a great yachtsman. He owned a number of yachts including the ‚Cubona‘, a mermaid which he sailed at the North Shannon Yacht Club in Ireland.

He presented a trophy known as the Barclay Walker Challenge Cup for Half Deckers, Colleens and Half raters

Wilaya de Skikda

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Si vous disposez d’ouvrages ou d’articles de référence ou si vous connaissez des sites web de qualité traitant du thème abordé ici, merci de compléter l’article en donnant les références utiles à sa vérifiabilité et en les liant à la section « Notes et références » (, comment ajouter mes sources ?).

La wilaya de Skikda (prononcé [ski.kda]  Écouter), (en arabe: ولاية سكيكدة), est une wilaya algérienne située au nord-est de l’Algérie, située dans le Nord-Constantinois sur sa façade maritime. Son code administrative est le 21: utilisé dans les identifications d’immatriculation de véhicules et de la Poste.

La wilaya fait face, au nord, à la mer Méditerranée et dispose de frontières communes avec les wilayas d’Annaba, de Guelma, de Constantine, Mila et de Jijel. Elle s’étend sur une superficie de 4 137,68 km2, avec une population avoisinant les 804 697 habitants. Elle dispose de 130 km de côtes qui s’étalent de la Marsa à l’est jusqu’à Oued Z’hour aux fins fonds du massif de Collo à l’ouest.

Le relief est très accidenté sur la frange littorale est, dans les massifs de Collo, Azzaba et la Marsa. Dans ce relief on distingue trois types de zones topographiques, les zones de montagnes, les zones de plaines et les zones de piémonts.

Le poste de wali de la wilaya de Skikda a été occupé par plusieurs personnalités politiques nationales depuis sa création le par l’ordonnance no 74-69 qui réorganise le territoire algérien en portant le nombre de wilayas de quinze à trente et une.

La wilaya de Skikda compte 13 daïras :

La wilaya de Skikda compte 38 communes.

Cette wilaya comprend les barrages suivants:

Ces barrages font partie des 65 barrages opérationnels en Algérie alors que 30 autres sont en cours de réalisation en 2015.

Wilaya à double vocation initiale agricole et touristique, Skikda était réputée pour ses plages, ses vergers d’agrumes (oranges, mandarines, citrons, etc.), sa culture de la fraise, ses huileries d’olive et la transformation de poisson. Après l’indépendance, elle est devenue une zone industrielle importante de l’Algérie, formant le triangle industriel de l’est avec Constantine et Annaba.

Une station de dessalement de l’eau de mer est en cours de réalisation ainsi qu’un complexe de production de l’hélium liquide.

L’une des plus grandes zones pétrochimiques d’Algérie se trouve à l’est de la ville, dans la banlieue de Larbi Ben M’Hidi (anciennement Jeanne d’Arc).

Skikda dispose de potentiels économique et touristique, avec une façade maritime de 130 km où se succèdent des plages (allant de Tamanart à l’ouest, jusqu’à El Marsa à l’est), et où l’on dénombre 8 zones d’expansion touristique[réf. nécessaire]. Cette position géographique combinée à l’importance de ses infrastructures techniques (routes nationales ports et voies ferrées) lui permettent de jouer un rôle important dans les échanges et les flux économiques.

Le tourisme, fort prometteur en raison de l’énorme potentiel de la Wilaya en la matière, souffre aujourd’hui d’un manque d’infrastructures et des effets de la politique du tout industriel initié durant les années 1970. Mais des efforts sont déployés depuis quelques années pour redynamiser le secteur.

La bibliographie partielle ci-dessous permet d’élargir et d’approfondir les connaissances sur le contenu de cet article.

Sur les autres projets Wikimedia :

Levin von der Schulenburg

Levin von der Schulenburg (* 9. November 1581 in Libbesdorf; † 23. Dezember 1640 in Schochwitz) war Landrat auf Schochwitz, Libbesdorf und Erdeborn.

Er war Angehöriger des weit verzweigten Adelsgeschlechts derer von der Schulenburg und Sohn des Dompropstes zu Havelberg, Levin von der Schulenburg (1528–1587), und dessen Ehefrau Fredeke von Alvensleben (1552–1622) aus Kalbe (Milde). Nach dem Schulbesuch am Gymnasium zu Halle (Saale) immatrikulierte er sich 1590 an der Universität Leipzig und wechselte 1599 an die Universität Wittenberg. Dort beendete er 1605 sein Studium. Als überzeugter Protestant erlaubte er 1604 auf Schloss Schochwitz eine öffentliche Disputation zwischen dem Lutheraner Dr. Albertus Grauerus, Rektor in Eisleben, und dem reformierten Superintendenten Dr. Wolfgang Amling aus Zerbst. Über diese Diskussion wurden mehrere Streitschriften verfasst.

1607 brach er zu einer Kavalierstour nach Frankreich auf, kehrte aber schon im Laufe desselben Jahres krank wieder zurück. 1612 heiratete Schulenburg seine Verwandte Elisabeth von der Schulenburg. Nach fünfjähriger Ehe starb 1617 Elisabeth. Nach einer mehrjährigen Trauerzeit verheiratete sich Schulenburg 1619 mit Anna von Bodendorf. Im selben Jahr wurde er durch Fürst Ludwig I. von Anhalt-Köthen in die Fruchtbringende Gesellschaft aufgenommen. Als Gesellschaftsname wurde ihm der Liebliche und als Motto Durchaus zugedacht. Als Emblem wird Schulenburg ein Rosenstock mit einer leibfarbenen schönen Rosen ausgeblühet verliehen. Im Köthener Gesellschaftsbuch findet sich Schulenburgs Eintrag unter der Nr. 27.

Zusammen mit seinem Verwandten Werner von Hahn wurde er Vormund von Vollrad Ludolf von Krosigk, dessen Eltern 1626 bzw. 1627 verstarben. Levin von der Schulenburg hatte auch das Amt eines Landrates im Fürstentum Anhalt inne und als solcher war er Mitglied des Engeren Ständeausschusses. Am 23. Dezember 1640 starb Schulenburg im Alter von 59 Jahren auf Schloss Schochwitz.

Lawrence J. Giacoletto

Lawrence Joseph Giacoletto (* 14. November 1916 in Clinton, Indiana; † 4. Oktober 2004 in Okemos, Michigan) war ein amerikanischer Elektrotechnik-Ingenieur und Erfinder. Er wurde unter anderem bekannt durch seine Arbeiten auf dem Gebiet der Halbleiterschaltungstechnik, insbesondere durch das nach ihm benannte Giacoletto-Ersatzschaltbild für Transistoren.

Giacoletto studierte zuerst am Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology in Terre Haute. Nach erfolgreichem Abschluss als Bachelor of Science der Fachrichtung Elektrotechnik wechselte er 1938 an die University of Iowa und erlangte hier ein Jahr später den Master of Science in Physik. Sein Studium wurde dann durch eine fünfjährige Dienstzeit als Offizier im Zweiten Weltkrieg unterbrochen. 1952 promovierte er schließlich in Elektrotechnik an der University of Michigan. Nach seiner Entlassung aus dem Militärdienst 1946 begann Giacoletto als Entwicklungsingenieur in den RCA Laboratories in Princeton, New Jersey. 1956 wechselte er zur Ford Motor Company in Dearborn, Michigan, wo er als Manager der Electronics Department Scientific Labs arbeitete. Ab 1961 lehrte er als Professor für Elektrotechnik an der Michigan State University, bis zu seiner Emeritierung im Jahre 1987. Zeitgleich mit diesem Wechsel gründete er das Cooperative Research Institute (CORES). Hier setzte er seine Forschungen auf dem Gebiet der Fahrzeugelektronik fort und entwickelte Ideen zur Verbesserung verschiedenster Produkte.

Seine Fähigkeiten fanden Niederschlag in über 70 technischen Publikationen und mehr als 23 Patenten. Er wirkte unter anderem maßgeblich an der Entwicklung des RCA Farbfernsehsystems mit, entwickelte die nach ihm benannte Ersatzschaltung für Transistoren, die Kapazitätsdiode und unternahm erste Versuche zur Entwicklung einer Transistorzündunganlage für Autos.

Giacoletto publizierte noch im hohen Alter von 83 Jahren. Er war Autor bzw. Mitautor nachfolgender Bücher:

Giacoletto trug unter anderem die Auszeichnungen Fellow of the IEEE und Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Er war Mitglied der American Physical Society und der Sigma Xi und einer Vielzahl von Gremien.

Badr Jafar

Badr Jafar (Arabic: بدر حميد جعفر‎‎) is an Emirati business executive and social entrepreneur based in the United Arab Emirates. He is the Chief Executive Officer of Crescent Enterprises, a multinational diversified business with operations in sectors including ports and logistics; power and engineering; aviation; healthcare; private equity and business incubation. He is also the President of its sister company Crescent Petroleum, a privately owned oil and gas company headquartered in the United Arab Emirates. Jafar is Chairman of Pearl Petroleum, a five-member international consortium for the development of natural gas assets in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq, and Chair of the Executive Board of Gulftainer, a global ports company.

Badr Jafar is known to advocate high-impact entrepreneurship and corporate governance, having established a number of organisations and initiatives within these fields. He launched the Pearl Initiative in September 2010 at the United Nations, a private sector-led initiative to promote corporate governance, accountability and transparency as a key driver of competitiveness within the Gulf Region of the Middle East. In 2011, Jafar was named a Young Global Leader by the World Economic Forum and currently co-chairs the Forum’s Family Business Council. He is also a Trustee of their Global Agenda on Economic Growth and Social Inclusion. Named one of the top 20 most influential Arabs by Arabian Business in 2016, Jafar has received a number of recognitions and awards for his work in business and philanthropy.

Badr Jafar was born and raised in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. He is of Iraqi Shia background. In 1994 he continued his education at Eton College, and graduated in 1999 from Cambridge University with a Masters degree in engineering and additional studies in astrophysics. In 1996, Harvard University awarded Jafar the Harvard Book Award, presented to students who „display excellence in scholarship and high character, combined with achievements in other fields.“ Jafar subsequently attended the Cambridge Judge Business School at the University of Cambridge.

Badr Jafar is currently a member of the International Advisory Board of the Cambridge Judge Business School, and is Chair of its Alumni Advisory Council. He serves on the Advisory Board of the School of Business and Management at the American University of Sharjah.

Badr Jafar is a staunch advocate of the role of social enterprise and impact entrepreneurship in addressing socio-economic challenges across the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). In 2014, he launched the Arab World Social Entrepreneurship Program in partnership with Ashoka, a social entrepreneurship organisation to identify and help scale the region’s most promising social businesses.

Jafar is a Founding Board Member of Endeavor UAE, and a member of the Global Board for Education for Employment, a Washington DC-headquartered organisation which works to train and upskill the youth of the MENA region to empower them for employment. In 2015, he joined the Gaza Sky Geeks Board, a start-up movement to transform Gaza’s most talented youth into tech entrepreneurs.

Badr Jafar has launched a series of projects using the arts as a means to empower youth and promote cultural diplomacy. In 2014, the Kennedy Centre honoured Jafar with a Gold Medal in the Arts in recognition of his efforts with cultural diplomacy to build closer ties between nations and regions.

In May 2011, Jafar and music producer Quincy Jones produced a charity single titled Tomorrow/Bokra, featuring 26 Arab artists, to raise funds for educational arts projects for displaced youth in the Middle East. The proceeds went towards the development of arts programs for over 430,000 children in partnership with Save The Children. In February 2011, actor Kevin Spacey and Jafar launched the Middle East Theatre Academy (META), a non-profit theatre academy to provide a platform to nurture young actors, directors, and producers from the Middle East, and help them to showcase their talent internationally.

In May 2015, Badr Jafar was appointed by the United Nations Secretary General onto a High-Level Panel on Humanitarian Financing, formed „to address the increasing gap between resources and financing for the world’s ever-increasing humanitarian needs.“

Zaculeu

Restored by United Fruit Company (Late 1940s)

Zaculeu or Saqulew is a pre-Columbian Maya archaeological site in the highlands of western Guatemala, about 3.7 kilometres (2.3 mi) outside of the modern city of Huehuetenango. Occupation at the site dates to the Early Classic period (AD 250–600) of Mesoamerican history. Zaculeu was the capital of the Postclassic Mam kingdom, and was conquered by the K’iche‘ Kingdom of Q’umarkaj. It displays a mixture of Mam and K’iche‘ style architecture.

In AD 1525 the city was attacked by Spanish conquistadors under Gonzalo de Alvarado y Contreras during a siege that lasted several months. Kayb’il B’alam, the city’s last ruler, finally surrendered to the Spanish due to starvation.

The site contains a number of temple-pyramids with talud-tablero style architecture and double stairways. The pyramids and governmental palaces are grouped around a series of large public plazas. The site also holds a ballcourt for playing the Mesoamerican ballgame. The site was originally fortified with walls.

The site was restored by the United Fruit Company in the late 1940s. It is open to tourists and includes a small museum.

The name Zaculeu means „white earth“ in the Mam, K’iche‘ and Q’anjob’al languages, from saq (adj) meaning „white“ and ulew (n) meaning „earth“. In the Mam language, the site is also called Chinabajul.

The archaeological site is located in the present-day village of San Lorenzo on the outskirts of Huehuetenango city, in the Guatemalan department of Huehuetenango. Zaculeu is the main tourist attraction in the Huehuetenango area. Zaculeu is located at an altitude of 1,900 metres (6,200 ft) above mean sea level, and is bordered by the Sierra de los Cuchumatanes mountain range.

Zaculeu is located in an area of fertile soils close to the Selegua and Viña rivers. The site is situated on a plateau overlooking the Selegua River, which flows to the west of the city. Deep ravines bordering the site to the south and east protected its access. The only access to the site is via a narrow land bridge to the north which unites the plateau to the general level of the valley floor. The Zaculeu plateau measures 11,178 square varas (4191 square metres).

Zaculeu was first occupied in the Early Classic Period (AD 250–600), and the buildings from this era show the architectural influence of the great metropolis of Teotihuacán in the Valley of Mexico. The largest constructions date from the Classic Period (AD 250–900). To these were added other plaza groups and buildings in the Early Postclassic (AD 900–1200) and Late Postclassic (AD 1200–1525) in an unbroken history. Zaculeu has been used as a ceremonial site by Mam Maya continuously to the present.

Zaculeu came under the influence of central Mexico again in the Late Classic. The architectural influence is so distinct that it suggests that a foreign Mexican elite may have settled at the city and continued in occupation there until the K’iche‘ conquered the site in the Postclassic.

The K’iche‘ Kingdom of Q’umarkaj conquered Zaculeu in the Postclassic. Traditionally that has been calculated as during the 15th century AD based on ethnohistoric accounts. Radiocarbon dating has pushed back the calculations of the K’iche‘ conquests by three centuries, and researchers now say their conquest of the Mam kingdoms may have taken place as early as the 12th century. The city was dominated by the K’iche‘ until the Spanish Conquest of the early 16th century.

The K’iche‘ king Q’uq’umatz died in battle against a group of the northern Mam. His son K’iq’ab continued where his father had left off and completed the conquest of the people. K’iq’ab was ruler when Zaculeu was conquered by the K’iche.‘ This appears to have been a second K’iche‘ conquest of the city, having previously fallen some time earlier. When the K’iche‘ conquered another kingdom, its practice was to place the newly subject kingdom under the control of one of the K’iche‘ noble lineages. Based on the style of Structure 4, archeologists believe that Zaculeu was likely controlled by the Nija’ib.‘ The Ilocab, who had conquered much of the region, are another possibility. The K’iche‘ tended to place their newly installed ruling elite in a mountain-top fortress securing the population in the valleys below. However, substantial portions of the original Mam population remained in place in the plateau area.

The K’iche‘ rebuilt over earlier Classic period structures in a distinctively K’iche‘ style. The basic K’iche layout consists of a westward-facing temple with a steep talud-tablero facade, flanked by two unequally sized wings. This was likely to have been the temple of Awilix, patron goddess of the Nija’ib‘ K’iche‘. A longer palace structure lies to the north, facing southwards and the ballcourt to the southwest. This K’iche‘ layout was somewhat distorted by the reuse of the earlier architecture, because the typical Mam settlement layout was built along an axis running from southeast to northwest. As the K’iche‘ did not completely redesign the entire site along a K’iche‘ pattern, the juxtaposition of Mam- and K’iche‘-style complexes demonstrates the fusing of the local and intrusive elite lineages.

Excavations have uncovered examples of metalwork at Zaculeu. These were small ornamental pieces. An example is a representation of a butterfly worked from tumbaga, an alloy of gold and copper, dated to the Postclassic period.

Although hostilities existed between the Mam and the K’iche‘ of Q’umarkaj after the rebellion of the Kaqchikel people against their K’iche‘ allies, the arrival of the Spanish conquistadors shifted the political landscape. Conquistador Pedro de Alvarado described how the Mam king Kayb’il B’alam was received with great honour in Q’umarkaj.

At the time of the Spanish Conquest, the main Mam population was situated in Xinabahul (also spelled Chinabjul), now the city of Huehuetenango. They retreated to Zaculeu as a refuge during the Spanish attacks because of its fortifications. The refuge was attacked by Gonzalo de Alvarado y Contreras, brother of conquistador Pedro de Alvarado, in 1525, with 120 soldiers, and some 2,000 Mexican and K’iche‘ allies. The city was defended by Kayb’il B’alam commanding some 5,000 people (the chronicles are not clear if this is the number of soldiers or the total population of Zaculeu).

After a siege lasting several months, the Mam were reduced to starvation. Kayb’il B’alam finally surrendered the city to the Spanish in October 1525. When the Spanish entered the city, they found 1,800 dead Indians, with the survivors eating the corpses of the dead. The Spanish forced the abandonment of Zaculeu after they built the new city of Huehuetenango some 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) away.

American explorer John Lloyd Stephens and English architect Frederick Catherwood visited the site in 1840, at which time the site was a confused jumble of overgrown ruins. Stephens published a description of the archaeological remains a year later. Catherwood did not draw any of the structures due to the poor state of the remains. The two excavated one of the mounds and recovered some ceramic vessels, which Catherwood drew.

On 24 April 1931, Guatemala declared the site as a National Monument under the name of Tzaculeu. On 23 February 1946, the site was renamed as Zaculeu. The government gave a license to excavate to the United Fruit Company, which immediately began archaeological excavations and related restorations of the structures under the direction of John M. Dimick. This later included re-coating a number of the buildings with white plaster, as it was known that many were originally finished that way. This has seldom been done in other restorations of Pre-Columbian buildings.[citation needed]

On 12 June 1970 the site was declared a National Precolumbian Monument by accord of the Guatemalan Ministry of Education (MINEDUC).

Zaculeu was likely originally developed because of its proximity to the Seleguá River, providing a permanent water supply and transportation waterway, together with its easily defensible hilltop location. Zaculeu has 43 structures. The majority of construction activity took place in one burst in the Early Classic, with minor alterations thereafter. The smaller platforms situated in the plazas were late additions; they show the influence of central Mexican civilization. The entrance to the site was via a narrow land bridge to the north, which was protected by a fortified structure that occupied three-quarters of the width of the land bridge.

The ceremonial centre of the city consisted of 43 structures clustered in an area of 1,400 square metres (15,000 sq ft). The architecture at the site includes talud-tablero style buildings with double stairways. The facades of some of the buildings have cylindrical columns, a feature found in other parts of Mesoamerica. Artefacts recovered from the site include items fashioned from turquoise and precious metals. The metal artefacts crafted from gold, silver and copper and their alloys demonstrate the city’s participation in the wider trade networks of the Postclassic Period. These metal artefacts were either influenced by or imported from Mexico and southern Central America.

The structures at Zaculeu were grouped around small plazas and were generally built from masonry, coated with a thick layer of plaster. Fragments bear floral and geometric designs, indicating the structures were originally brightly painted. Stones were undressed and cemented in adobe mortar. No evidence of corbel vaulting has been found and very little in the way of stone sculpture. The architecture completely lacks stone sculpture. Burials from the Early Classic yielded a rich array of finds, but Late Classic burials were accompanied by a lesser variety of grave offerings.

An Early Classic tomb was inserted under the main pyramid at Zaculeu; it had been tunnelled from the volcanic ash underlying the structure. A broad stairway descended to the tomb from the main plaza. The tomb interior was painted red and the floor was scattered with the remains of more than 100 ceramic vessels. These were crushed when the roof of the tomb collapsed. Also found were the remains of 34 pyrite mirrors of a type similar to those found at Kaminaljuyu. A sizeable quantity of jade was recovered from the tomb, including beads and earplugs. Some of the jade beads had been carved to represent human and parrot faces. The tomb contained the bones of four or more individuals. The ceramic offerings included decorated tripod vessels, polychrome bowls and a polychrome cylindrical vase that had a painted band of hieroglyphs. One ceramic bowl is painted in a negative painting style that is similar to finds from Nebaj.

The site core is laid out around eight plazas. Some of the structures were restored by the United Fruit Company; most of these border Plazas 1 and 2. Structures 1 and 2 are pyramid temples. Structures 4, 6 and 10 are palace structures, long buildings with internal chambers and benches used as residences and for administrative purposes.

Plaza 1 is the main plaza at the site. It measures 54 by 38 metres (177 by 125 ft) and is closed on all four sides by pyramid temples.

Plaza 2 is a large plaza at the southeast of the site core, south of Plaza 1. It is bordered on the southeastern side by Structure 4, on the northeast by Structure 1, on the northwest by the ballcourt and on the southwest by Plaza 3.

Plaza 3 is a small plaza at the southern extreme of the site core, southwest of Plaza 2 and south of the ballcourt.

Plaza 4 is at the northwest side of the site core. It is closed on the northeastern side by Structure 10, on the southeast by Structure 13 and on the southwest by the ballcourt. Plazas 5 and 6 are located immediately to the west.

Plaza 5 is a small plaza immediately west of Plaza 4 and northwest of the ballcourt. It is divided from Plaza 6 to the northwest by Structure 21.

Plaza 6 is another small plaza to the west of Plaza 4. It is enclosed on three sides by a building complex with Structure 21 on the southeast side.

Plaza 7 is a small plaza at the western extreme of the site core, to the west of Plazas 5 and 6.

Plaza 8 is an enclosed plaza to the southwest of the ballcourt. Structure 2, a pyramid, closes the northwest side and Structure 3 closes the southeast side.

Structure 1 is a 39-foot (12 m) high pyramid on the southeast side of Plaza 1. It has eight stepped sections topped by a summit shrine. The shrine has three doorways approached via a double stairway rising from the plaza below. The pyramid was rebuilt seven times with the visible remains dating to the Early Postclassic. The earliest phase of construction dates to the Early Classic period.

Structure 2 is a pyramid on the northwest side of the sunken Plaza 8. It is largely unrestored. Structure 3 lies across the plaza to the southeast. It is a platform with a twin stairway facing northwest onto the plaza.

Structure 3 is on the southeast side of Plaza 8, facing onto the plaza opposite Structure 2. It is immediately south of the ballcourt.

Structure 4 is an unusual combination of temple and palace. It is situated on the southeast side of Plaza 2. The structure consists of a central pyramidal base flanked by two attached range structures. The pyramidal base is topped by a shrine containing three rooms, the final room of the three is circular. The temple has three steep stairways flanked by balustrades. The main stairway ascends directly from the plaza, those on either side are perpendicular to the main stairway. The balustrade of each stairway terminates at the top in a vertical panel. The temple facade is in good condition although the roof of the temple is missing. The range structures are unequal in size and each contains a single long room atop a low platform. The facade of each of these rooms once possessed a row of columns although only stumps remain in situ. This temple-palace is K’iche‘ in style and has been identified with the Nija’ib‘ lineage of the K’iche‘, being very similar to the Temple of Awilix at Q’umarkaj. A tomb was excavated in Structure 4, it consisted of a complete skeleton with associated offerings that included two tripod earthenware bowls, one with duck effigies, a tripod incense burner, a flint knife, nine obsidian knives, five jade beads and some fragments of gold.

Structure 6 is a temple on the northeast side of Plaza 1. It rises in stepped sections topped by a summit shrine and was accessed via a stairway from the plaza that divided in two near the summit. Only the lower sections of the walls and columns of the shrine remain.

Structure 9 is a large mound on the northwest side of Plaza 1. The last phase of construction shows evidence of the interruption of construction by the Spanish Conquest. Terraces were absent on three sides of the structure with only the lowest level having been built on the fourth. Early Classic ceramic caches were discovered under Structure 9.

Structure 10 borders the northeast side of Plaza 4 and is unrestored although some original stonework is evident. It is a very long building accessed via three stairways ascending from the plaza. The structure has been investigated by archaeologists and was found to have multiple doorways opening into a single long room.

Structures 11 and 12 are small platforms in the middle of Plaza 1. They have both been restored.

Structure 13 is on the southwest side of Plaza 1, dividing that Plaza from Plaza 2. It was accessed via a double stairway ascending from Plaza 1. This double stairway gave access to the first level of the temple structure only; from there, a wide single stairway continued to the summit shrine. Only the lower sections of the walls and columns of the temple superstructure remain. The earliest phase of construction dates to the Early Classic and consisted of a low platform that supported a perishable superstructure.

Structures 15 and 16 are both low platforms located in Plaza 2, on an axis running directly northwest across the plaza from the central temple of Structure 4.

Structure 17 is a pyramidal base in Plaza 2, to the west of Structures 15 and 16. It supported two rooms accessed via a double stairway on the northwest side of the temple. The entrance to outermost room once had two columns, although now only the lower portions of the walls and columns remain.

Structure 21 is a low platform in Plaza 5, it is partially restored and has a stairway on the northwest side.

The Ballcourt consists of Structures 22 and 23, it was used for the ceremonial Mesoamerican ballgame. It is an I-shaped sunken ballcourt with sloping walls. The two structures forming the sides of the ballcourt once supported buildings, now only the lower sections of their walls remain. The ballcourt is oriented northwest to southeast and is 48 metres (157 ft) long.

Structure 37 is not associated with any of the eight plazas of the site core, standing about 50 metres (160 ft) northeast of Structure 4 and a similar distance east of Structure 1. It was investigated by archaeologists but has not been restored, although some of the original stonework and plaster coating is visible.

Coordinates:

University of Toronto Students‘ Union

The University of Toronto Students‘ Union (UTSU), legally known as the Students‘ Administrative Council of the University of Toronto, Inc., is a student advocacy group at the University of Toronto. It is Canada’s second largest student union and the third largest in North America.

The council evolved from the University of Toronto Union, which was founded in 1901. This was replaced by the Students‘ Parliament in 1907. The Students‘ Parliament suffered from low attendance from its elected members, especially representatives of the medical school. As the years progressed its Executive shouldered much of the work. In 1913, the parliament was replaced by a Students‘ Administrative Council composed of solely male students. The Women’s Students‘ Administrative Council was formed in 1916, and in 1919 the two councils formed a Joint Executive. In 1931 the separate councils were abolished and the Joint Executive became the main body, and during 1935-1936 the unwieldy name „Joint Executive Students‘ Administrative Council“ was simplified to „Students‘ Administrative Council“. At an annual general meeting on 16 November 2006 University of Toronto students voted to change the name to University of Toronto Students‘ Union.

The mandate of UTSU until 1971 can be found in section 34 of the University of Toronto Act, 1947. SAC’s original offices were located in Hart House, but are today based in the Louis B. Stewart Observatory at the centre of Hart House Circle, just south of the Hart House building itself.

UTSU provides a variety of student services, including a Used Textbook Exchange, the U of T Food and Clothing Bank, and funding and services for campus clubs. UTSU also administers the student Health and Dental Plan and Student Discount Metropass sales, a program that was recently made permanent after lobbying from student unions throughout the Toronto area.

Voter turnout in UTSU elections was very low for several years. Recently, turnouts began reaching as high as the 15% mark, but have once again dropped to 6% following the controversy surrounding the 2010 elections.

In November 2002, UTSU members voted in favour of becoming members of the Canadian Federation of Students, with 65% of those who voted supporting this decision.

The Union is governed by a Board of Directors which includes elected representatives from each of the schools‘ federated and constituent colleges and professional faculties. The number of directors from each division is proportional to the population of that college or faculty.

The Union runs through commissions, committees, and its board. The bulk of the Union’s work comes from the five commissions: Campus Life, Community Action, Sustainability, Social Justice & Equity, and Academic & Student Rights. Any Union member can participate in the Commission meetings that are held at least once a month. Members of the Commissions are simply full-time undergraduate students who would wish to attend, all of whom have voting abilities. The committees are made up of members of the board of directors and deal with specific issues of operations and services. Projects and budgets move up through the commissions and committees, making the union more in touch with its membership.

Flat Fees

In 2009, the University of Toronto changed how they charged fees to students in the Faculty of Arts & Science. Instead of charging per-course fees, they started charging a flat fee – meaning that students would have to pay for five courses – even if they only took three. This amounted to a 66 per cent tuition fee increase for no service improvement.

The UTSU had been opposing the flat fee structure since it was announced in 2009. Since the implementation of the program, students have found it difficult to have a part time job and do well in their studies, since they do not have the choice to reduce their course load under this tuition fee scheme. The flat fee scheme has also placed additional financial stresses onto students, worsening concerns about mental health. They launched a strong campaign over the last few years to address this issue. In addition to petitions and protests, we garnered support from alumni, who started a letter-writing campaign to oppose flat fees, we brought the issue to a provincial level through the Canadian Federation of Students-Ontario, making it one of their main lobbying asks and educating students across the province to the unfair fee-collection model, some of whom did not know it was taking place at their school.

In 2013 the UTSU ramped up our campaign, collecting more than 6000 postcard petitions from students asking the government to address the issue of flat fees and delivering them to the Brad Duguid, Minister of Training, Colleges and Universities. In December 2013, the provincial government announced that new legislation would limit the amount of fees that universities can charge to students. Under the new policy, 100 per cent of tuition fees can only be charged if students are taking an 80 per cent course load or higher. This will reduce tuition fees for some students over $2300 per year. The changes will roll out over two years starting in fall 2015.

Access Copyright

UTSU was a vocal opponent of the University’s controversial license with Access Copyright, which has since not been renewed. Access Copyright claimed that the license would provide students with the ability to use copyrighted works without penalty – a right already granted to students through the Copyright Act. Affirmed by the Supreme Court of Canada, students and researchers are permitted to use copyrighted works for educational purposes. Under the former license, each student at the University of Toronto was charged $26 in fees that provided no service or protections for students.

Other victories include:

Historical Criticisms

UTSU and its predecessor body SAC have long been the target of criticism. The earliest manifestations of this were in response to SAC’s policy, established in 1926, of not interfering in political issues for fear this would impede campus unity. This policy extended to The Varsity (newspaper), which was published by SAC. In 1929 and 1931, SAC dismissed editors who published unpopular opinions. In the mid-1930s, SAC was criticized for failing to support efforts by anti-war and pro-peace advocates on campus, groups which SAC declared were of limited interest. In 1946, SAC’s decision not to endorse efforts to prevent deportation of Japanese Canadians was also the brunt of campus criticism. Anti-racist advocates also derided SAC’s inability to embrace this cause in the 1940s.

This criticism began to shift in the 1960s when the student council embarked on a more activist agenda. One of the more concrete manifestations of this was in 1972, when the Medical Society held a successful referendum calling for their withdrawal from SAC. Administrative hesitation was the only factor which prevented this withdrawal from becoming effective.

Controversial Public Positions

The UTSU has been criticized for having taken controversial public positions on equity and racial issues on campus, as well as having become involved in controversial campaigns relating to certain global issues like the Sri Lankan conflict or the Israeli Apartheid campaign and federal issues like the Aboriginal movement Idle No More. Many criticisms have come from members of provincial and federal political parties, including both the Liberals and Conservatives (and their student arms), which have questioned the legitimacy of UTSU’s democratic credentials to subvert criticism.

2007 CFS Campaign Allegations

The UTSU has also been criticized for its involvement with the Canadian Federation of Students, due to numerous reports of interference with student union elections at other schools in the Greater Toronto Area. Former S.A.C. Vice-President Sam Rahimi (2004-2005), has claimed that he was repeatedly asked to participate in election campaigns at Ryerson and York Universities, and that he and other student leaders from S.A.C. were bused in to these schools at election time to campaign on behalf of C.F.S. friendly slates The Canadian Federation of Students denies these claims.

2008 Threats of Legal Action

The UTSU has recently been involved in a number of scandals in which they have been accused of silencing students who disagree with the ideas of the union. In a recent referendum regarding the construction a Student Commons Building that was to be completely funded and run by students (as opposed to funded by private donations and run in part by the administration and by students[citation needed]) the UTSU was accused of actively pursuing students who it felt were campaigning against the union. The then president of the union went so far as to threaten legal action against a student who was putting up posters questioning the UTSU’s approach to the student commons.

2012 Lecture Protests

A protest in November 2012 against guest lecturer Warren Farrell at an event organized by the Canadian Association for Equality garnered criticism after an estimated fifteen protesters blocked the entrance to the event and caused a delay in the lecture. One person was arrested at the event but was released with no charges. The UTSU organized the protest after the university administration denied their request to cancel the lecture. The protest was organized in response to controversial excerpts from Warren Farrell’s publications and statements he made about incest in a 1977 Penthouse interview.

One of the feminist protesters is recorded as repeatedly saying „You are fucking scum“ to a male attendee.

2013 Membership Defederation

In 2013, several major divisions of the UTSU’s membership—Trinity College, Victoria College, and the Engineering Society— held referenda proposing effective „defederation“ from the Union by rerouting fees directly to their respective College or Faculty-based student societies, rather than paying the fees to the Union. All three divisions voted overwhelmingly in favour of fee diversion.

2015 Election

After a long history of incumbent election victories, in 2015, a non-incumbent opposition slate won all 5 of the executive seats and a large number of the board.

Lawsuit Against Former Executives and Executive Director

Shortly after the 2015 elections, when it was clear that an non-incumbent executive had been elected, the then-current executive director, Sandra Hudson mysteriously parted ways from UTSU. On September 24, 2015, it was revealed that the UTSU had filed a statement of claim against Sandra Hudson, Yolen Bollo-Kamara (former president) and Cameron Wathey (former vice-president internal & services) regarding the dismissal of the former executive director.

Kenyan general election, 1992

Daniel arap Moi
Kenya African National Union

Daniel arap Moi
KANU

General elections were held in Kenya on 29 December 1992, the first multi-party elections since independence. The results were marred by allegations of ballot-box stuffing, and targeted ethnic violence in the Rift Valley Province. Human Rights Watch accused several prominent Kenyan politicians, including President Daniel arap Moi and then-VP George Saitoti of inciting and co-ordinating the violence. They were also the first elections to feature a ballot for the post of President, who had previously been elected by the National Assembly. Voter turnout was 69.4%.

Following the elections, Moi appointed a further 12 KANU members to the National Assembly.

In 1993 Kenneth Matiba filed a petition against the election results. However, his failure to personally sign the petition resulted in the petition being struck out by Justice Riaga Omolo. Matiba, was physically incapacitated and had given his wife power of attorney. In 2012, Justice Omolo was declared unfit to serve in the judiciary by the Judges and Magistrates Vetting Board over this decision.

Endgegner

Ein Endgegner (auch Boss genannt, weitere Varianten sind Endboss, Bossgegner, Boss-Monster oder im MMORPG-Jargon auch BossMob) ist in Computerspielen ein besonders starker und widerstandsfähiger Gegner, den der Spieler am Ende eines Spielabschnitts besiegen muss. Der Kampf gegen einen Endgegner stellt innerhalb des Spielverlaufs einen Höhepunkt dar und bildet den Abschluss eines Levels, einer Mission, eines Dungeons oder auch des Spiels selbst. In einigen Spielen trifft der Spieler auch mitten in einem Level auf Gegner mit Endgegner-Eigenschaften. Diese bezeichnet man als Zwischengegner (oder auch als Mini-Boss oder Zwischenendgegner).

Endgegner kommen in den meisten Spielegenres vor, bei denen der Einzelspielermodus in eine Rahmenhandlung eingebettet ist. Besonders häufig findet man sie in Action-Adventures, Ego-Shootern, Rollenspielen, Jump ’n’ runs und Shoot ’em ups. In vielen Spielen folgt nach dem erfolgreichen Kampf gegen einen Endgegner eine Filmsequenz, die einen Höhepunkt oder den Abschluss der Geschichte erzählt.

Endgegner sind meist grafisch besonders aufwendig gestaltete, große Ungeheuer, die dem Spieler derart überlegen sind, dass spezielle Techniken zu ihrer Überwindung notwendig sind. Thematisch passt ein Endgegner in das Thema des zuvor durchschrittenen Levels. Sie folgen oft bestimmten Bewegungsmustern und haben spezielle Schwachstellen. Der Spieler muss diese durchschauen und eine entsprechende Taktik entwickeln. Oft treten Endgegner, besonders wenn es sich um die finalen Endgegner handelt, in mehreren aufeinanderfolgenden Formen (Inkarnationen) auf, die nacheinander besiegt werden müssen. Während des Kampfes gegen einen Endgegner wird oft eine Anzeige der verbleibenden Trefferpunkte des Gegners bzw. der jeweiligen Inkarnation eingeblendet, die darüber informiert, wie viel Schaden diesem noch zugefügt werden muss, bevor er besiegt ist. Nicht selten kann der Kampf gegen einen Endgegner mehrere Minuten dauern, in Einzelfällen auch mehr als eine halbe Stunde. Nach erfolgreichem Kampf erhält der Spieler häufig eine Belohnung, z. B. einen Bonus oder ein Loot.

In 3D-Spielen findet der Kampf gegen einen Endgegner oft in einem eigens dafür angelegten Level statt, der meistens um einen großen Hauptraum herum angelegt und räumlich begrenzt ist, um dem Spieler keine Rückzugsmöglichkeiten zu bieten. Nicht selten spielt die Gestaltung des Levels eine besondere Rolle bei der Überwindung des Endgegners, beispielsweise durch das Vorhandensein von Fallen, die der Spieler aktivieren muss (Beispiel: Endgegner Chthon in Quake). Meistens ist die Gestaltung des Raumes gleichzeitig auch auf die Angriffstaktik und die Fähigkeiten des Endgegners zugeschnitten. Ein Beispiel dafür sind, unter anderem, höher gelegene Ebenen, auf die der Endgegner hinaufspringen kann, um einen stärkeren Angriff vorzubereiten.