Tyler is a city in and the county seat of Smith County, Texas, United States. It takes its name from President John Tyler. This city had a population of 96,900 in 2010, according to the United States Census Bureau. Tyler’s 2014 estimated population is 107,405. It is 100 miles (160 km) east-southeast of Dallas. Tyler is the principal city of the Tyler Metropolitan Statistical Area, with a population of 209,714 in 2010, and the regional center of the Tyler-Jacksonville combined statistical area, with a population of 260,559 in 2010.
Tyler has the nickname „Rose Capital of the World“. It gained this name due to the large quantity of rose bushes processed through the area, along with hosting America’s largest rose garden.
In 1985, the international Adopt-a-Highway movement originated in Tyler when, after appeals by local Texas Department of Transportation officials, the local Civitan chapter adopted a two-mile (3-km) stretch of U.S. Highway 69. Tyler is also home to the Caldwell Zoo and Broadway Square Mall.
As a regional educational and technology center, Tyler is the host for more than 20,000 higher education students, a College of Engineering, and a University Health Science Center, two regional, billion-dollar hospital systems, and a variety of technology startups.
Tyler is located at at 544 feet (166 m) above sea level. Tyler is surrounded by many smaller cities, including Whitehouse, Lindale, New Chapel Hill, Bullard, Edom, Brownsboro, and Chandler.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 54.4 square miles (140.8 km2), of which, 54.2 mi2 (140.5 km2) of it is land and 0.1 mi2(0.3 km2²) of it is covered by water.
Tyler experiences weather typical of East Texas, which is unpredictable, especially in the spring. All of East Texas has the humid subtropical climate typical of the American South.
The record high for Tyler is 115 °F (46 °C), which occurred in 2011. The record low for Tyler is −3 °F (−19 °C), which occurred on January 18, 1930.
As of the 2010 census, 96,900 people resided in the city of Tyler, Texas. The population density was 1,782.0 people per square mile (688.0/km²). The 41,742 housing units averaged a density of 716.7 per mi2(276.7/km²). The racial makeup of the city was: 60.5% White, 24.8% Black, 0.5% Native American, 1.9% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 10.3% from other races, and 2.0% from two or more races. About 21.2% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. The median income for the city was $42,752 and the poverty rate was 19.5%.
According to the city’s most recent Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the city’s various funds had $87.7 million in revenues, $101.7 million in expenditures, $49.2 million in total assets, $12.3 million in total liabilities, and $17.6 million in cash in investments.
The structure of the management and coordination of city services is:
The Northeast Texas Public Health District is a political subdivision under the State of Texas established by the City of Tyler and Smith County. In place for nearly 70 years, the Health District became a separate entity in 1994, with an administrative Public Health Board. With a stated vision „To be the Healthiest Community in Texas“, the district has a full-time staff of over 130 employees. The Health District has a broad range of services and responsibilities dedicated to their mission: „To Protect, Promote, and Provide for the Health of Our Community.“
Tyler is represented in the Texas Senate by Republican Kevin Eltife, District 1, and in the Texas House of Representatives by Republican Matt Schaefer, District 6.
The Texas Twelfth Court of Appeals is located in Tyler.
The Texas Department of Criminal Justice operates the Region I Parole Division Office and the Tyler District Parole Office in Tyler.
The two U.S. Senators from Texas are Republicans John Cornyn and Ted Cruz; Tyler is part of Texas‘ US Congressional 1st District, which is currently represented by Republican Louie Gohmert.
The United States Postal Service operates several post offices in Tyler, including Tyler, Azalea, Southeast Crossing, and the South Tyler Annex.
Tyler’s higher education institutions include the University of Texas at Tyler and the University of Texas Health Center at Tyler, both part of the University of Texas System, as well as Tyler Junior College and Texas College.
Public primary and secondary education for much of the city is provided by the Tyler Independent School District, which includes two high schools, John Tyler and Robert E. Lee; Premier High School of Tyler, a public charter school (Cumberland Academy); several Tyler schools offer international baccalaureate and advanced placement programs.
Portions of incorporated Tyler are served by surrounding school districts. These include sections of southeast Tyler by the Whitehouse Independent School District, and some sections in the east which are served by the Chapel Hill Independent School District.
In addition to its role in the rose-growing industry, Tyler is the headquarters for Brookshire Grocery Company, which operates Brookshire’s, Fresh and Super 1 Foods, and Ole! supermarkets in three states (Texas, Louisiana, and Arkansas). The company’s main distribution center is located in south Tyler, while SouthWest Foods, a subsidiary that processes dairy products, is located just northeast of the city. Adams Engineering has also made its headquarters in Tyler.
The manufacturing sector includes:
According to the City’s 2012-2013 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the top ten employers in the city are:
Annually, the Texas Rose Festival draws thousands of tourists to Tyler. The festival, which celebrates the role of the rose-growing industry in the local economy, is held in October and features a parade, the coronation of the Rose Queen, and other civic events. The Rose Museum features the history of the Festival. Tyler is home to Caldwell Zoo, several local museums, Lake Palestine, Lake Tyler, and numerous golf courses and country clubs. A few miles away in Flint, TX is The WaterPark @ The Villages, a year-round, indoor water park. There is also an „Azalea Trail“ in Tyler, which are two officially designated routes within the city that showcase homes or other landscaped venues adorned with azalea shrubs. The Azalea Trail also is home to the long standing tradition of the . The official greeters of the Azalea Trail are known as the Azalea Belles, young women from the Tyler area who dress in antebellum gowns. The belles are chosen each year from area high schools or home school families, and it is an honor to be chosen. Tyler State Park is a few miles away where visitors can camp, canoe, and paddle boat on the lake. Activities include picnicking; camping; boating (motors allowed – 5 mph speed limit); boat rentals; fishing; birding; hiking; mountain biking and hiking trails; lake swimming (in unsupervised swimming area); and nature study. The Smith County Historical Society operates a museum and archives in the old Carnegie Library. The East Texas State Fair is held annually in Tyler. Lake Tyler was the location of the HGTV Dream Home contest in 2005. The 6,500 square feet (600 m²) house briefly boosted tourism and interest in the community. It subsequently was sold at public auction in January, 2008, for 1.325 million dollars.
Tyler has a Cotton Belt Railroad Depot Museum located near the Chamber of Commerce office.
The Smith County Historical Society, a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization, was founded in 1959 by individuals and business firms dedicated to discovering, collecting, and preserving data, records, and other items relating to the history of Smith County, Texas. The Society operates a museum and archives, which is located in the former Carnegie Public Library building in downtown Tyler. Permanent museum exhibits include life-size dioramas with Smith County history topics ranging from Caddo Indians to the 20th century. Other items from the society’s collections are showcased in revolving, temporary exhibits. The society’s archival library contains historical artifacts of Smith County, including newspapers, city directories, school records, photographs, maps, historical papers, rare books, and much more. The archives are open to the public for research on a limited schedule with volunteer staff on duty. The society is also the official caretaker of Camp Ford Historic Park.
Camp Ford was the largest Confederate Prisoner of War camp west of the Mississippi River during the American Civil War. The original site of the camp stockade is a public historic park managed by the . The park contains a kiosk, paved trail, interpretive signage, a cabin reconstruction, and a picnic area. It is located on Highway 271, 0.8 miles (1.3 km) north of Loop 323.
The most common form of transportation is the motor vehicle. Tyler is a nexus of several major highways. Interstate 20 runs along the north edge of the city going east and west, U.S. Highway 69 runs north-south through the center of town and State Highway 64 runs east-west through the city. Tyler also has access to U.S. Highway 271, State Highway 31, State Highway 155, and State Highway 110. Loop 323 was established in 1957 and encircles the city, which has continued to grow outside of this loop. Loop 49 is a limited access „outer loop“ around the city and currently runs from State Highway 110 south of Tyler to Interstate 20 northwest of Tyler. Future segments of this tollway will extend Loop 49 out to Interstate 20 on the eastern side of the city and to other East Texas destinations.
Tyler Transit provides customers with public transportation service within the City of Tyler. The buses run daily, excluding Sundays and holidays. Tyler Transit offers customers the option to purchase tickets, tokens, or passes at the Tyler Transit office, located at 210 E. Oakwood Street inside the Cotton Belt Railroad Depot at the main transfer point. The City of Tyler paratransit service is a shared-ride, public transportation service. Requests for service must be made the day before the service is needed. Trips can be scheduled up to 14 days in advance. ADA complimentary paratransit service is provided to all origins and destinations within the service area defined as the city limits of Tyler. Greyhound Lines bus service is available through a downtown terminal.
Tyler Pounds Regional Airport offers service to Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport via American Eagle. General Aviation services are provided by two fixed-base operators, and the Jet Center of Tyler.
Tyler was the hub for a series of short-line railroads which later evolved into the St. Louis Southwestern Railway, better known as „The Cotton Belt Route“. This line later became part of the Southern Pacific Railroad, which itself merged with the Union Pacific Railroad, which continues to serve the city today. No passenger train service to Tyler has occurred since April 1956, but Amtrak runs through the city of Mineola, a short distance north of Tyler.
A 2014 study by Walk Score ranked Tyler with a walkability score of 32 (out of 100) with some amenities within walking distance.
Hospitals located in Tyler include East Texas Medical Center, Trinity Mother Frances Health System, University of Texas Health Center at Tyler, and Texas Spine & Joint Hospital. There are also many clinics including the Direct Care Clinic.
Tyler is the home of many churches, including five large congregations in downtown, the Marvin United Methodist Church, Dayspring United Methodist Church, West Erwin Church of Christ, First Baptist Church, and the Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception. Tyler is also the seat of Catholic Diocese of Tyler, which is particularly noteworthy for its St. Joseph the Worker Parish, one of the few churches in America dedicated to the exclusive use of the Traditional Latin Mass. The parish is staffed by the Priestly Fraternity of St. Peter. The city also is the home of the Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception and the Sanctuary of Our Lady of Mount Carmel, a 100 plus year sanctuary recently renovated and declared a historic and heritage site by the Catholic Diocese of Tyler. The Saint Peter Claver Parish located in central Tyler, is the second largest Catholic Church in Tyler and was dedicated to St. Peter Claver, a Franciscan Priest that assisted the black slaves in Brasil during the slave trade to South America. There is also a Nazarene church on Old Bullard Rd called Tyler First Church Of The Nazarene.
Tyler has three United Pentecostal Churches the largest of them is Tyler Tabernacle located just outside of Loop 323. The Our Lady of Guadalupe Catholic church in East Tyler is also a major center of gathering. The St Peter and Paul Chapel, a Catholic church, is located next to the Bishop Thomas K. Gorman Regional Catholic School was constructed and dedicated in 2011 and holds masses in English and Spanish with a significant number of other services offered to all Tyler and neighboring residents. The city’s largest church, Green Acres Baptist Church, is located on Troup Highway in southeast Tyler. Tyler is also home to two reformed Baptist churches, Sylvania Church and Living Acts Church, both of which are located in the south Tyler area. Additionally, Tyler has two Jewish houses of prayer, Ahavath Achim, which associates itself with Conservative Judaism and Beth El which adheres to Reform Judaism. Tyler is also home to East Texas Islamic Society, established in 1988, which includes an Islamic house of worship and an Islamic school for children. There is also a Unitarian, Universalist Fellowship on Old Omen Road and Cross Brand Cowboy Church at 11915 FM-2015 Tyler, Texas.
Two Tyler churches were destroyed during the 2010 East Texas church burnings.
Currently, 18 media outlets and one newspaper are located in Tyler, as well as many more in the surrounding areas.