Cannabis in Oregon

Cannabis in Oregon relates to a number of legislative, legal, and cultural events surrounding use of cannabis (marijuana, hashish, THC, kief, etc.). Oregon was the first U.S. state to decriminalize the possession of small amounts of cannabis, and among the first to authorize its use for medical purposes. An attempt to recriminalize possession of small amounts of cannabis was turned down by Oregon voters in 1997.

From 1999 through 2005, the ratio of Oregonians using cannabis outpaced the general United States population by 32–45%. In surveys conducted in 1974 and 1975—one and two years after decriminalization—it was found that 2% of respondents said they did not use marijuana or cannabis because they were unavailable, 4% for legal or law enforcement reasons, 53% reported lack of interest, and 23% cited health dangers. The remaining 19% were using or had used it at one time.

Measure 91 was approved in 2014, legalizing non-medical cultivation and uses of marijuana. It followed perennial, unsuccessful efforts to legalize marijuana by ballot initiative, including in 1986 and in 2012 which made it to the ballot, but voters rejected.

In 2015 the Oregon state governor signed an emergency bill declaring marijuana sales legal to recreational users from dispensaries starting October 1st, 2015.

According to the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), cannabis is readily available in Oregon. According to a 2006 report by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, in 2003–2004 Oregon ranked in the top fifth of states for cannabis usage in three age categories: 12 to 17, 18 to 25, and 26 and older. In 2005, while most states that had passed medical marijuana bills over the past decade saw marijuana use among teenagers decline faster than the national average (a 43% decrease), Oregon, Nevada, and Maine saw smaller decreases than the average.

The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration estimates and publishes the number of people to have used cannabis in the previous 30 days, as compiled by the Oregon chapter of the National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws (NORML):

Oregon imports cannabis from Washington, California, Mexico and Canada, while also producing a large quantity locally. Large indoor and outdoor growing operations have been discovered on private, state, and forest lands, with plants numbering in the thousands. Allegedly large outdoor growing operations run by Mexican cartels drug trafficking were assumed to be operating in remote locations. Highly potent cannabis grown in Oregon is consumed locally, and distributed to other parts of the U.S.

In 1988, due to the success of the DEA’s Campaign Against Marijuana Planting in California, Oregon rivaled California nationally in cannabis production. In the 1990s, Oregon was a national leader in indoor cannabis cultivation, along with California, Washington, Kentucky and South Florida. For the decade ending in 1991, the DEA considered Oregon the „nation’s cradle of indoor marijuana growing.“ In 2006, Oregon was the fourth largest indoor cannabis producing state, and the tenth largest cannabis producing state overall.

According to Nick Budnick of the Willamette Week, medical marijuana has „helped legitimize pot culture in Oregon.“ In 2005, Multnomah County Circuit Judge Doug Beckman said „I think there’s a broader social acceptance for users of marijuana. And gradually there’s increasing public pressure, I think, to decriminalize marijuana.“

In 2007, nearly 20,000 people attended the third annual Hempstalk Festival at Sellwood Riverfront Park in Portland, Oregon. While organizers insisted smoking would not be tolerated, the smell of marijuana lingered in the air and some festival goers chose to consume various forms of cannabis foods. No festival attendees were arrested. Seattle Hempfest is an annual event in Seattle, Washington also attended by Oregonians, known as the world’s largest annual gathering advocating decriminalization of marijuana for uses including but not limited to medicinal, industrial, and recreational. The 2008 Seattle Hempfest, which took place August 16–17, set a new record with around 150,000 people in attendance.

The first International Cannabis Business Conference (ICBC) took place in Portland, on September 13 and 14, 2014, at the Oregon Convention Center. The conference brought together entrepreneurs, professionals and advocates from across the globe, with the goal to further mainstream the global cannabis industry. The ICBC is a collaboration between veteran activists Anthony Johnson, Alex Rogers and Debby Goldsberry. Johnson has served as chief petitioner of statewide cannabis reforms and is currently Director of the Oregon Cannabis Industry Association; Rogers is CEO of Northwest Alternative Health and lead producer of the Oregon Medical Marijuana Business Conference; Goldsberry is a co-founder of the Berkeley Patients Group and serves as an ambassador for Magnolia Wellness. The ICBC further cements Portland has a prominent locale for cannabis activism.

Measure 91 was approved in 2014, legalizing non-medical cultivation and uses of marijuana in Oregon starting July 1, 2015.

Cannabis was completely legal in Oregon until 1935, when the state passed the Uniform State Narcotic Drug Act. The legislative record contains no mention of those substances causing any problems, but they were simply included as part of the package. The Oregon Decriminalization Bill of 1973 abolished criminal penalties for possession of small amounts of marijuana. As a result, possession of up to an ounce of marijuana in Oregon was a violation (not a crime), punishable only by a fine of $500 to $1000. There is one exception, however, which is: if possession of such an amount occurs in a public place within 1000 feet of a school attended by minors, the person committing the offense is guilty of a Class C misdemeanor instead. Possession of more than one ounce, no matter the proximity to a school, was a Class B felony until July 3, 2013, at which point it became a Class B misdemeanor. The actual use of marijuana in private, and being under the influence of marijuana, are not punishable offenses under Oregon law. However, public use, and also driving under the influence of intoxicants are punishable offenses.

Intentionally growing even one marijuana plant (Unlawful manufacture of marijuana), was a Class A felony in Oregon (ORS 475.856, 475.858) until July 1, 2015. Selling or giving away marijuana was an offense (Unlawful delivery of marijuana) that varied in severity and penalty depending on the amount of marijuana involved in the transaction, whether or not consideration was involved, the relative ages of the people involved, and the proximity of the transaction to nearby schools attended by minors (ORS 475.860, 475.862). Giving away five grams (approx. 0.18oz) of marijuana or less by an adult to another adult for no payment at a location at least 1000 feet from the closest school was only a violation, punishable by a fine of $500 to $1000. However, if greater amounts of marijuana were involved, if any payment at all were involved, if delivery was by an adult to a minor, and/or if delivery occurred within 1000 feet of a school (even if both parties are adults), the severity of the offense ranged from Class C misdemeanor to Class A felony with increasing penalties.

The preceding convictions and penalties applied to any person, minor or adult, Oregon resident or otherwise, when the offense occurred within the state of Oregon. However, Oregon marijuana law is further complicated due to the existence of Oregon’s medical marijuana program. The Oregon Medical Marijuana Program allows individuals with a medical history of one or more qualifying illnesses and a doctor’s recommendation to apply for registration with the program. Accepted applicants are issued a Medical Marijuana Card, which entitles them to different treatment under the law. Essentially, medical marijuana patients are allowed to possess, without fear of citation, arrest, or penalty, up to 1.5 pounds of marijuana at a time. Possession of a greater amount, however, does become punishable by law. In addition to legal possession, cardholders may also legally grow, without fear of citation, arrest, or penalty, up to 18 immature cannabis plants and 6 mature ones at a single time. Cardholders are also allowed to designate a primary caregiver and a grower of their choice, if so inclined. These people enjoy the same freedoms, in regard to possession, as the cardholder as long as they remain officially registered. The above limits of legal possession apply to the total combined property of the cardholder, caregiver, and grower. If a grower is growing plants for more than one cardholder, he or she may possess up to 18 immature plants per cardholder. A grower may not grow plants for more than four cardholders at a time. Also, in addition to legal possession and manufacture as outlined above, cardholders, caregivers, and growers may legally deliver marijuana to each other, and to other cardholders, so long as the delivery is made without consideration. The privileges which normally protect cardholders, caregivers, and growers from citation, arrest, and penalty do not excuse possession, manufacture, or delivery in cases where they are simultaneously guilty of certain offenses listed in ORS 475.316, such as driving under the influence of marijuana or using marijuana in public.

In June 2010, the Oregon Board of Pharmacy reclassified marijuana from a Schedule I drug to a Schedule II drug. According to a press release from the board, „The Board of Pharmacy’s action to reschedule marijuana on the state list does not supersede federal law or create a direct conflict with federal law. It simply does not address federal law,“ and, „Marijuana or products containing any amount of marijuana will not be available by prescription in Oregon unless they have been approved by the FDA.“ News reports noted that this reclassification makes Oregon the „first state in the nation to make marijuana anything less serious than a Schedule I drug.“ (See also Removal of cannabis from Schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act)

A ballot measure of the November 2010 election would have established a state licensing system for marijuana producers and dispensaries, allowed the sale of marijuana from the dispensaries to medical marijuana patients, provide low income assistance for those patients, and set up a research program to evaluate the effects of the new law. It was defeated with 43.85% support and 56.15% opposition.

The Oregon Cannabis Tax Act is another recent citizens‘ initiative. It qualified for the November 2012 state ballot, with the petition having 88,887 valid signatures. If approved, it would have legalized marijuana for recreational adult use, regulate and tax the cultivation and sale of marijuana, and legalize the production, use, and sale of hemp. It appeared as Measure 80 on the ballot, but was defeated by a margin of approximately 53%-47%.

In 1973, Oregon became the first state to decriminalize cannabis. Possession of 28.35 grams (1 ounce) or less is a violation (not a crime) punishable by a $500 to $1,000 fine; stricter punishments exist for sale or cultivation. Possession of 1 ounce to 110 grams is a class B felony punishable by 10 years in prison, and possession of more than 110 grams is a felony with punishment depending on the defendant’s prior record. In 1986, Oregon’s Ballot Measure 5 sought to legalize cannabis. The Oregon Marijuana Initiative spent about $50,000 promoting the proposition, and collected the 87,000 signatures necessary to place it on the ballot. In 1986, by some estimates, cannabis was Oregon’s largest cash crop, estimated in 1985 at between $1 billion and $1.15 billion. The ballot measure was rejected by Oregon voters with 279,479 „Yes“ and 781,922 „No“ votes, or 26.33% support.

In 1995, Oregon House Bill 3466, which would have recriminalized marijuana in Oregon, died. According to bill sponsor Jerry Grisham (R–Beavercreek), HB 3466 was meant to counter a circulating initiative petition called The Oregon Cannabis Tax Act of 1997, which would have allowed state liquor stores to sell marijuana and permitted hemp production for paper, fabric, oil, and protein. Taxes on these products would go to schools to replace funding allegedly lost by Measure 5. The petition was sponsored by a political action committee named Pay for Schools by Regulating Cannabis.

HB 3466 would have increased penalties for possession of under an ounce of marijuana from an infraction (traffic ticket-like offense) to a Class A misdemeanor, the worst non-felony offense, with a fine of $100 to $1,000 per gram, up to a maximum of $5,000. The bill also would have created a new crime—being under the influence of marijuana—punishable by a fine of up to $5,000. The bill would have passed according to the positions of state senators, but was blocked on a technical basis which prevented it from coming to the floor the same day it was read—which allows public input—unless overridden by a vote.

In 1997, the Oregon Legislature passed House Bill 3643, making the possession of less than an ounce of marijuana a Class C misdemeanor, which added a possible jail sentence of up to 30 days. According to Eric Schlosser of Rolling Stone, John Kitzhaber, then Oregon’s governor, signed the bill because he did not want to appear soft on crime. Activists opposing HB 3643 collected twice as many signatures as were required to force a referendum on the bill. John Sperling, Peter Lewis, and George Soros were the principal financial backers of the referendum signature drive. Measure 57, which would have upheld HB 3643, was turned down by a margin of 2–1.

The Oregonians For Cannabis Reform 2010 hoped to make cannabis products legal and available in a retail environment by enacting the Oregon Cannabis Tax Act of 2010 (OCTA), but the effort failed to collect the minimum 83,000 signatures by the July 2 deadline to qualify for the 2010 ballot. Backers of the initiative say 90% of the proceeds from the state’s sale of marijuana would have gone to Oregon’s general fund (as much as $300 million), lowering the state tax burden, while 10% of the revenue would have been used to fund drug abuse education and treatment programs. Advocates claim the marijuana market would be removed from the underground economy, where young people and drug abusers often take control, and place it in liquor stores regulated by the Oregon Liquor Control Commission so the minimum age of 21 can be enforced. According to Madeline Martinez, Executive Director of NORML’s Oregon chapter, U.S. Congressman Barney Frank (D–Massachusetts) has endorsed the idea, though support from Oregon state officials has been limited.

An initiative petition to allow recreational use of marijuana passed in November 2014. In September 2014, some of the municipalities revealed intention to apply sales tax on recreational use, ahead of it being legalized. Measure 91 only allows the state to tax marijuana, so local governments are hoping they’ll be able to get their taxes grandfathered in if they pass them now.

The Oregon Medical Marijuana Act was established by Ballot Measure 67, a citizens‘ initiative, in November 1998, the same election as the referendum Measure 57. It modified state law to allow the cultivation, possession, and use of marijuana by prescription by patients with certain medical conditions. The ballot measure passed by a margin of 54.6% to 45.4%. The Act does not affect federal law, which still prohibits the cultivation and possession of marijuana. Bernie Hobson, spokesman for the DEA’s Seattle regional office, said „From a federal standpoint, there is no such thing as medical marijuana.“ Four other western states (Alaska, Arizona, Nevada and Washington) and the District of Columbia passed similar measures legalizing the use of marijuana for medical purposes in the same election.

The act created „The Oregon Medical Marijuana Program,“ which administers the Medical Marijuana Act approved by the public in November 1998. The Oregon Medical Marijuana Program administers the program within the Oregon Department of Human Services. As of April 1, 2009, there were 20,974 patients registered, with 10,626 caregivers holding cards for these patients. Virtually all patients benefiting from the program (18,000+) suffer from severe pain and more than 3,200 from nausea. The other conditions are given as epilepsy, HIV/AIDS, cancer, cachexia, chronic glaucoma and tremors caused by Alzheimer’s disease. Multiple states have requested information on Oregon’s program to use as a model for their own medical marijuana initiatives and registration systems.

In 2004, an Oregon ballot measure that would have increased the amount of cannabis a patient can legally possess to six pounds was defeated by Oregon voters. In 2005, the Oregon Medical Marijuana Program brought in more than $900,000 to the state’s budget for the Department of Human Services.

An initiative seeking to legalize medical marijuana dispensaries appeared on the November 2010 ballot as Ballot Measure 74 where it was defeated with 56% of voters opposing the initiative. However, the state legislature legalized medical dispensaries a few years later during its 2013 legislative session.

Physicians cannot have their licenses revoked for recommending or supporting marijuana according to a September 7, 2000 decision by the U.S. District Court. The case, Dr. Marcus Conant, et al., v. McCaffrey et al., arose from two events: the November 1996 passage of California Proposition 215 which authorized medical marijuana, and a December 30, 1996 response to the law by the director of the Office of National Drug Control Policy which said:

The statement accompanied authorization for the U.S. Inspector General for Health and Human Services to exclude individuals from participation in Medicare and Medicaid programs, such as physicians who recommend marijuana to patients for medical purposes. Clarification two months later affirmed that mere discussion of any drugs with a patient was not grounds for sanction, but affirmed that physicians „may not intentionally provide their patients with oral or written statements in order to enable them to obtain controlled substances in violation of federal law.“ The court’s decision acknowledged that the government has a legitimate concern that physicians might recommend marijuana in bad faith. However, physicians in good faith using honest medical judgment should not fear DEA sanctions. Furthermore,

The government appealed the decision to the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals, which agreed with the lower court on October 29, 2002, and expanded the grounds for the injunction to include free speech. The government appealed again to the Supreme Court which declined to hear it October 14, 2003,[citation needed] reaffirming the California Circuit Court’s injunction.

In November 2007, a California appeals court ruled that „it is not the job of the local police to enforce the federal drug laws.“ The U.S. Supreme Court denied an appeal by the city of Garden Grove in December 2008, upholding the decision. The case began in June 2005 with a medical marijuana patient from Garden Grove being pulled over by city police and cited for possession of marijuana, despite his immediate display of proper medical marijuana documentation. The charge against him was later dismissed, but the city refused to return his confiscated eight grams of marijuana, even after being instructed by Orange County Superior Court. The Supreme Court ruling affects 13 U.S. states with medical marijuana laws.

Police departments throughout Oregon decline to press charges, or charges have been dropped for possessing and growing marijuana, even for convicted drug dealers. Salem police estimated they received 30 or 40 calls for marijuana activity in 2007 which were not pursued because the grow operations were legal, even one next to a high school. One grower, a previously convicted felon, was found with evidence of making hash oil, which is not protected, though a grand jury did not indict him.

After a federal agent from the Department of the Interior used a thermal imaging device to determine that Danny Lee Kyllo was using grow lamps to grow marijuana in his Florence, Oregon home, the Supreme Court of the United States determined that the use of a thermal imaging device from a public vantage point to monitor the radiation of heat from a person’s home was a „search“ within the meaning of the Fourth Amendment, and thus required a warrant. Because the police in this case did not have a warrant, the Court reversed Kyllo’s conviction for growing marijuana.

Brody’s Ghost

Brody’s Ghost is a graphic novel, written and drawn by Mark Crilley and published by Dark Horse Books. Prior to its release, four preview stories appeared in Dark Horse Presents on MySpace from January to April, 2010. Book 1 was released in July 2010, Book 2 in January 2011, Book 3 in May 2012, Book 4 in April 2013, Book 5 in April 2014, and the final volume, Book 6, was released April 2015.

Brody– A young man who has given up on making any real effort in life, since being dumped by his girlfriend, Nicole. Brody is mostly a mellow guy, but he sometimes has a problem with his temper. One day he meets a ghost named Talia, who wants his help finding and apprehending a serial killer known as the Penny Murderer. Because he can see her, she believes he has untapped psychic powers that will allow him to hear „death echoes“ at the scenes of the crimes. So, she introduces him to a ghost named Kagemura, who trains him to unlock his powers. He also gives Brody a weapon called the „kanazuchi“ (a sort of Kanabō).

Talia– A girl who contracted leukemia at age 16, and apparently died soon after. For some reason, she has been locked out of heaven until she can identify and apprehend the Penny Murderer, or at least, that’s what she tells Brody when she first meets him. But she has been keeping lots of secrets. She cannot physically interact with the material world, though she says every ghost has one specific way they can do so. Her thing is breaking glass. Because she can’t catch the killer herself, she needs someone living to help her. She spent her first five years as a ghost looking for someone who could see her, and Brody was the first ghost-seer she encountered. So, in spite of his initial reluctance to get involved, she refused to take „no“ for an answer. After she saved him from a street gang called the L47s, he agreed to let her introduce him to Kagemura.

Kagemura– An ancient samurai ghost, who is a site spectre: a ghost attached to a specific location; in his case, Shinshoji Temple. Kagemura has his own reasons for agreeing to train Brody, and has no interest in Talia’s reasons. While he trains Brody to unlock his psychic powers (or „Greater Senses“), five demighosts who work for Kagemura train Brody in various styles of combat.

Nicole– Brody’s ex-girlriend, a waitress at a swanky restaurant called Arturo’s.

Gabriel– Brody’s best (and only) friend, who he describes as one of the few honest cops.

Kyo– a large, muscular ghost whose combat style is brute strength.

Soku– a ghost with long, pointed limbs, whose combat style is speed.

Chi– the most humanoid of the demighosts, whose combat style is about strategy and intellect.

Ran– a flat-bodied ghost with elongated limbs and no head, whose combat style is chaotic and unpredictable.

Gi– a small ghost with a round body and several short, pointed limbs, whose combat style is deceit.

Theodor I. Nietner

Theodor Eduard Nietner, genannt Theodor I. Nietner (* 3. Dezember 1790 in Schönholz; † 28. Dezember 1871 in Potsdam) war ein Königlicher Hofgärtner in Paretz und Niederschönhausen.

Der aus einer Gärtnerfamilie stammende Theodor Nietner war der Sohn des Planteurs in Schönholz, später Hofgärtner in Niederschönhausen, Christian Nietner und der Sarah Eva Catharina, geborene Rolandt oder Ruhlandt, Tochter eines Unteroffiziers der Garde.

Seine Lehrzeit absolvierte Nietner von 1806 bis 1809 im Garten des „Gräflich Reußischen Palastes“ in Berlin, der unweit des Potsdamer Tors, an der Leipziger Straße lag. Anschließend ging der 19-Jährige auf Wanderschaft, die ihn nach Paris und Renneville führte. Das im Hofgärtnermuseum des Schlosses Glienicke aufbewahrte Zeugnis, das der Bürgermeister von Renneville ausgestellt hatte, bescheinigt Nietner gutes Betragen […], ohne auf Details von Nietners Tätigkeit einzugehen. Zurück in Preußen, erhielt er ab 1811 eine Gehilfenstelle bei seinem Vater in Niederschönhausen und nahm von 1813 bis 1815 als Freiwilliger an den Befreiungskriegen teil.

Der Sohn einer angesehenen Hofgärtnerfamilie besuchte 1816 als Gasthörer die Berliner Universität, wo er an wissenschaftlichen Seminaren in den Fächern Botanik und Zoologie teilnahm. Im darauffolgenden Jahr ermöglichte ihm ein Reisestipendium Friedrich Wilhelms III. die Weiterbildung in den Garten- und Parkanlagen in Wien, Neapel, Haarlem und England. Nach der Rückkehr 1820 bekam er eine Gehilfenstelle im Potsdamer Neuen Garten zugewiesen, den Hofgärtner Johann Friedrich Morsch (1765–1834) verwaltete.

Um in den königlichen Gärten auf die nächsthöhere Stelle des Obergehilfen kommen zu können, musste Nietner aufgrund einer Neuregelung die schriftliche Prüfung ablegen. Dieses erste Examen mit wissenschaftlichem Anspruch, das Peter Joseph Lenné kurz zuvor durchgesetzt hatte, fand im Herbst 1820 statt. Die ersten Prüflinge waren Nietner und Carl Julius Fintelmann. Mit bestandenem Abschluss durften sie sich „Obergehilfe“ nennen und hatten das Anrecht auf eine Hofgärtnerstelle.

Als im April 1822 der Hofgärtner der Plantagen im Park Sanssouci, Wilhelm Sello, starb, übernahm Nietner vorübergehend dessen Amt, bis im Juli desselben Jahres der Nachfolger Carl Handtmann (1776–1852) aus Paretz eintraf. Nietner erhielt nun die frei gewordene Hofgärtnerstelle in Paretz, dem ehemaligen Sommersitz Friedrich Wilhelms III. und der Königin Luise. Nach zehn Jahren übergab er das Amt 1832 an Gustav I. Adolph Fintelmann und folgte der Berufung auf den Sommersitz der Fürstin Liegnitz nach Niederschönhausen, wo er bis zu seiner Pensionierung 1870 tätig war. In seinem neuen Wirkungsbereich spezialisierte er sich auf Gemüsezucht sowie Treiberei und legte mit besonderem Eifer eine große Sammlung Eriken an.

In Anerkennung seiner Verdienste verlieh ihm Wilhelm I. am 19. März 1863 den Roten Adlerorden III. Klasse und ehrte ihn am 3. April 1867 mit dem Titel „Oberhofgärtner“.

In dieser Zeit gehörte es für einen Hofgärtner zur Selbstverständlichkeit einem Gartenbauverein oder naturkundlichen Verein beizutreten, die Mitte des 19. Jahrhunderts zahlreich gegründet wurden. Die Mitgliedschaft bot nicht nur Kontakt- und Informationsmöglichkeiten, sondern förderte durch die Weitergabe eigener Kenntnisse auch die gesellschaftliche Anerkennung.

Bereits als Gartengehilfe war Nietner am 1. Dezember 1818 der heute noch existierenden „Wetterauischen Gesellschaft für die gesamte Naturkunde zu Hanau“ als korrespondierendes Mitglied beigetreten. Ebenso wurde er am 1. August 1846 in der „Böhmischen Gartenbau-Gesellschaft“ in Prag aufgenommen und am 28. Mai 1846 in der „Flora – Königlich Sächsische Gesellschaft für Botanik und Gartenbau zu Dresden“. Eine weitere Mitgliedschaft erfolgte nach Gründung des „Akklimatisations-Vereins für die Königlich Preußischen Staaten“ 1857 in Berlin.

Neben zahlreichen Aufsätzen in Gartenzeitschriften beteiligte sich Nietner auch an dem von Peter Joseph Lenné zwischen 1837 und 1842 herausgegebenen Nachschlagewerk „Handbibliothek für Gärtner und Liebhaber der Gärtnerei“. In dem dreizehn Bände umfassenden Werk, das die Erfahrungen von Hofgärtnern und Botanikern allgemeinverständlich wiedergab, wurde Nietners „Küchengärtnerei“ im ersten, 1837 erschienenen Band veröffentlicht. 1842 folgte eine eigene Publikation über Erdbeerzucht.

Für die Zeitschriften „Verhandlungen des Vereins zur Beförderung des Gartenbaues in den Königlich Preußischen Staaten“, des gleichnamigen „Berliner Gartenbauvereins“ (Kurzform), schrieb er Aufsätze über Zier- und Nutzpflanzen. Ebenso für die von Christoph Friedrich Otto und Albert Gottfried Dietrich herausgegebene „Allgemeine Gartenzeitung“. Außerdem übersetzte er Artikel aus ausländischen Fachzeitschriften, da er über gute Fremdsprachenkenntnisse verfügte.

Theodor I. Nietner heiratete 1822 in Potsdam die aus einer Gärtnerfamilie stammende Charlotte Luise Albertine, genannt Berta (auch Bertha), geborene Sello (1803–1835), Tochter des Hofgärtners Ludwig Sello. Mit ihr hatte er sechs Kinder, von denen drei Söhne den Gärtnerberuf erlernten. Der 1823 geborene Theodor II. war später Hofgärtner in Potsdam. Der 1828 geborene Johannes erforschte die Pflanzenwelt auf Ceylon und siedelte dort als Eigentümer einer Kaffeeplantage an. Nach dem Tod seiner Ehefrau ging Nietner mit Auguste Schneider (1813–1872) eine zweite Ehe ein.

Als Theodor I. Nietner 1871 mit 81 Jahren starb, wurde er, wie auch seine erste Ehefrau Berta und die am 2. März 1872 verstorbene zweite Ehefrau Auguste, auf dem Friedhof in Niederschönhausen beigesetzt. Die von ihrem Schwager Ludwig Persius entworfene Grabstele für Berta Nietner kam 1871/1872 für Theodor und Auguste Nietner als Kopie hinzu. Nach 1945 wurden die im klassizistischen Stil gestalteten Stelen auf den sogenannten „Sello-Friedhof“ überführt, den sein Schwager Hermann Sello 1844 als privaten Familienfriedhof auf dem Bornstedter Friedhof angelegt hatte. Die Grabmäler stehen heute im südlichen Bereich des „Sello-Friedhofs“.

Stammtafel der Gärtnerfamilie Nietner (Auszug)

Manfred Henninger

Manfred Henninger (* 2. Dezember 1894 in Backnang; † 5. Oktober 1986 in Stuttgart) war ein deutscher Maler, Zeichner, Grafiker, Keramiker und Hochschullehrer. Als Künstler wird er der Gruppe Die verschollene Generation zugerechnet.

Nach einer Konditorlehre studierte der Kriegsfreiwillige von 1920 bis 1928 an der Stuttgarter Kunstakademie bei Robert Poetzelberger, Christian Landenberger und Heinrich Altherr, in Dresden bei Oskar Kokoschka. Der Erste Weltkrieg machte den Freiwilligen zum entschiedenen Anhänger des Pazifismus, später erfolgte eine Annäherung an den linken Schriftsteller Friedrich Wolf. Henninger war 1929 Mitbegründer der Stuttgarter Neuen Sezession. 1931 unternahm er eine Reise nach Italien mit Sepp Vees und Gustav Schopf. 1933 emigrierte er über die Schweiz nach Ibiza und von dort wegen des spanischen Bürgerkrieges ins Tessin, wo er dem in Ronco sopra Ascona wirkenden Circolo Verbano angehörte. 1949 erfolgte seine Berufung an die Staatliche Akademie der bildenden Künste Stuttgart als Leiter der Malklasse für Landschaft und Bildnis, er unterrichtete dort bis zum Jahre 1961. 1955 bis 1957 war er Rektor der Akademie. Zu seinen bekanntesten Schülern zählen Peter Kalkhof, Günther C. Kirchberger, Roland Ladwig und Friedrich Sieber

In seinen Erinnerungen an meine Lehrtätigkeit an der Stuttgarter Akademie, die der Hochbetagte 1976 in den von Wolfgang Kermer herausgegebenen Akademie-Mitteilungen veröffentlichte, resümierte er:

Ich kann sagen, daß die Lehrtätigkeit befruchtend auf meine eigene Arbeit gewirkt hat. Die Beurteilung so vieler Schüler hat mich in der Beurteilung meiner eigenen Werke bestimmter gemacht. Ich verdanke ihnen viel Erfahrung und beglückende Erinnerung. – Talente sind sehr selten. Das, was den Wert der Kunst ausmacht, ist schon im einzelnen Menschen vorbereitet. Der Einfluß des Lebens kann nur weckend und begeisternd sein.

Seine Arbeiten kreisen häufig um die Themenfelder menschliche Figur und Landschaft und können als spätimpressionistisch bezeichnet werden.

Henninger empfing mehrere Auszeichnungen und Ehrungen: So wurde er 1962 zum Ehrenmitglied der Stuttgarter Kunstakademie ernannt, 1975 erhielt er die Verdienstmedaille des Landes Baden-Württemberg, 1979 die Bürgermedaille der Stadt Stuttgart und das Große Bundesverdienstkreuz. 1985 wurde ihm der Hans-Thoma-Preis verliehen.

Manfred Henninger war Mitglied im Deutschen Künstlerbund.

Michael Vass

Michael Vass (* 9. September 1881 in Eberau; † 5. März 1958 in Wiener Neustadt) war ein österreichischer Landwirt und Politiker (Landbund/CS). Vass war verheiratet und zwischen dem 15. Juli 1922 und dem 31. Oktober 1934 Abgeordneter zum Burgenländischen Landtag.

Vass wurde als Sohn des Wirtschafters der Erdödyschen Gutsverwaltung Joseph Vass geboren und arbeitete nach der Volksschule als landwirtschaftlicher Arbeiter der Erdödy’schen Gutsverwaltung in Eberau. 1896/97 war er in Wien Schönbrunn, 1898/99 bei Graf Batthyany in Güssing und 1900/01 als Gärtner der Gemeinde Wien beschäftigt. Vass leistete zwischen 1902 und 1905 seinen Militärdienst an und absolvierte in der Folge einen Telegraphenkurs in Tulln. Anschließend war Vass Telegraphie-Lehrer tätig und wurde später Wachtmeister bei den Husaren in Bratislava. Vass wanderte 1906 in die USA aus und arbeitete als Gärtnergehilfe in Passaic, New Jersey, bevor er 1919 ins Burgenland zurückkehrte. Vass war als selbständiger Landwirt in Güssing tätig, flüchtete 1920 nach Österreich und war 1921 Mitbegründer des Burgenländischen Bauernbundes/Landbund. Er gehörte dem Landesparteivorstand von 1922 bis 1930 an und war vom 11. Mai 1924 bis zum 16. Mai 1926 Obmann des Landbundes im Burgenland. Zudem hatte er zwischen dem 19. Juni 1927 und dem 22. Oktober 1930 die Funktion des Geschäftsführers der Landesorganisation inne. Vass hatte des Weiteren 1925 die Funktion eines Vorstandsmitglied der Reichsparteileitung inne, war ab 1927 Landesführer-Stellvertreter der burgenländischen Heimwehr und ab dem 15. Juni 1930 Landesführer. Nachdem Vass 1930 als Listenführer der Christlichsozialen Partei-Heimatwehr kandidierte wurde er mit dem 22. Oktober 1930 aus dem Landbund ausgeschlossen. 1934 zog sich Vass aus der Politik zurück. Er war von 1932 bis 1954 in der Landespflege- und Siechenanstalt in Neudörfl als Gärtner beschäftigt und übersiedelte nach seiner Pensionierung am 30. Juni 1954 nach Bad Sauerbrunn.

Ralph Appelbaum Associates

Ralph Appelbaum Associates (RAA) is the world’s largest museum exhibition design firm. It has offices in New York City, London, Beijing and Berlin.

The New York Times reported in 1999 that the firm was composed of „architects, designers, editors, model builders, historians, childhood specialists, one poet, one painter and one astrophysicist.“

The project the firm is most well known for is the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, which has been described as a „turning point in museology“ and won the President Award for Design Excellence as well as the Federal Design Achievement Award.

The firm was founded in 1978 by Ralph Appelbaum (born 1942), a graduate of Pratt Institute and former Peace Corps volunteer (in Peru). According to Mr. Appelbaum’s official biography, „[He] currently directs RAA’s undertakings, and retains daily involvement in selected commissions“

Ralph Appelbaum Associates has done work for the William J. Clinton Presidential Library (2004), the Museum of the Portuguese Language (2006), The National World War I Museum (2006), the London Transport Museum (2007), and the Newseum (2008).

In 1994, William Grimes noted in the New York Times that RAA only took on non-profit commissions, however their position has changed in recent years as the firm has completed some corporate work, including the NASCAR Hall of Fame and the Corning Museum of Glass. The firm has also worked for companies such as IBM, Intel, Sotheby’s, Samsung, and Starbucks.

Ralph Appelbaum Associates is scheduled to open the following exhibits:

Donald Albrecht writes, „Positioning his design expertise within the context of fundraising, public relations and other forms of marketing, Appelbaum acknowledges that today’s museums must compete with other forms of leisure entertainment.“

“Ralph Appelbaum doesn’t work in the field of museum exhibition design. He practically owns it. Architects who do museums have Appelbaum and his 70-person New York firm, Ralph Appelbaum Associates, to thank for making prospects in the field bigger and better. Yet they complain about his increasing boundlessness—he does exhibits, he does interiors, he does architectures—and worry that he’s unstoppable. They should worry. Since he opened RAA in 1978, Appelbaum has taken the bobby pin out of the bun, as it were, and made museums sexy again. He has been particularly successful jazzing up museums of science, history and culture—the kind of dowdy old burgs that through the 1970s were dying slow deaths in the backwaters of popular life. Over the past two decades, those same institutions have become tourist destinations for millions of people, who then spend billions of dollars in surrounding communities. Appelbaum has had much to do with that renaissance. He became the go-to guy for museum design not so much as a designer but as a dramaturge. By mixing the didactic material of museums with a good story line and a lot of flashy modern hardware, he all but invented „edutainment.“ – Bradford A. McKee, ‚What’s a Museum: What he says it is. How Ralph Appelbaum built a monopoly in the field of exhibition design. Architecture Magazine, 2002[2]”

When Appelbaum was awarded the first National Design Award for Communications by the Smithsonian, the Cooper-Hewitt commented, “His work is not without its detractors. Some believe he has contributed to a diminution of the museum, from temple to forum. Certainly, Appelbaum has helped to bring the museum into open view in our society.[8]

They have had a well-known struggle to find art museums willing to commission their work. Notably, Roberta Smith in the New York Times panned work done by the firm at the Whitney Museum for an Edward Hopper show.

According to a press release from the Newseum, RAA „over the past three decades, [has] completed more than 250 commissions in the fields of social, cultural and natural history at a variety of museums, memorials and heritage projects in more than 50 cities worldwide.“

Projects include:

Escape from the Studio ’06

Escape from the Studio ’06 was a 2006 concert tour by American heavy metal band Metallica. The tour took place during the writing process of the group’s then-untitled ninth studio album, Death Magnetic, and follows the Madly in Anger with the World Tour in support of St. Anger.

Previously to the tour, drummer Lars Ulrich had hinted that they might play some material from their upcoming album, which the band also did on Escape From The Studio ’95 (when they first used this tour name, under similar circumstances), where they played Load‘s „2 X 4“ and ReLoad ’s „Devil’s Dance“. Metallica kept this tradition going by debuting a new song informally dubbed „The New Song“ by frontman James Hetfield, which runs for approximately 8 minutes. Due to the repetition of the words „Death is not the end“ in the lyrics, many fans chose to believe this to be the name of the song, but no announcement regarding this has been made by the band. The lyrics seem to talk about reincarnation, or, as it could be interpreted, Hetfield’s ‚rebirth‘ after undergoing alcohol rehabilitation.

During their August 12 gig in Tokyo, the band debuted more new material, a song referred to as „The Other New Song“. The song is much shorter, clocking in at just over 3 minutes. Fan reactions have been mixed, with several comparisons to work by punk pioneers The Misfits.

After the tour’s conclusion, the band reentered their San Francisco workspace/studio to continue the writing process for their new album.

In addition to a little new material, Metallica also played the Master of Puppets album in its entirety at several of these shows, as it was the 20th anniversary of the record’s release. And in particular, rarely played album song „Orion“ was dedicated to its primary writer, the group’s late bassist Cliff Burton.

The „Metallica“ portion of the tour logo is made up of taking one letter from several of their albums in a cut-and-paste fashion. The letters are as follows:

(Taken from the Centurion, South Africa SuperSport Park show on March 18, 2006)

Maxim Ziese

Maxim Ziese (* 26. Juni 1901 in Griesheim; † 16. Juli 1955 in Köln) war ein deutscher Dramatiker und Schriftsteller.

Ziese stammte väterlicherseits aus einer pommerschen Familie. Er nahm als Infanterist am Ersten Weltkrieg teil. Ab 1920 studierte Ziese Rechtswissenschaften an der Goethe-Universität in Frankfurt am Main und war dort im Corps Austria aktiv. Nach seiner Promotion 1924 arbeitete er im Bergwerk, fuhr zur See und gab in Berlin zusammen mit seinem Bruder Hermann Ziese-Beringer mehrere kriegsgeschichtliche Bücher heraus. Im Jahr 1930 erhielt er den Dramatikerpreis des Bühnenvolksbundes und 1934 den ersten Erzählpreis der Zeitschrift die neue linie. Sein Schauspiel „Der erschlagene Schatten“ wurde in der Spielzeit 1935/1936 am Berliner Staatstheater in einer Inszenierung von Gustaf Gründgens aufgeführt. 1943/44 war er als Dramaturg mit Gustaf Gründgens am Preußischen Staatstheater in Berlin tätig. Nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg lebte er als Redakteur in Friedrichsdorf und Düsseldorf.

South Norwood Country Park

South Norwood Country Park is a park in South Norwood, close to Elmers End station, mainly in the London Borough of Croydon. It is a 47 hectare (116 acre) green space which opened in 1989. The park is a mix of countryside and parkland, and land formerly used for sewage farms serving the growing London population.

Croydon Sports Arena, the home of Croydon F.C., is on the south-eastern edge of the park. There is also a car park and visitor centre, and a duck pond similar to the one at South Norwood Lake.

The site that is now known as South Norwood Country Park has undergone many changes in its long and chequered history, from the days of the Great North Wood to ancient moated house, sewage farm, farming, the war years, civil defence, allotments, wasteland, highways, refuse dump and now the Country Park.

A scientific dig was carried out in 1972 by Lillian Thornhill on behalf of the Croydon Natural History and Scientific Society in an attempt to ascertain the age of the double-sided moat shown on the Thomas Morley estate map of 1736 with the name La Motes. On an earlier estate map of Peter Burrell, the land is indicated as adjoining Sturts Land and is given the name Lame Oates which is obviously a phonetic corruption of La Motes.

Deeds of 1467 relate to a mortgage transaction at Leweland between Richard at Cherte and Stephan and John Fabian of London. Going further back in time, there is a gap in the available records until one reaches the end of the 13th century when further evidence indicates the existence of a 13th – 14th century house of some importance having existed on the site, with the principal owner being Lord Robert de Retford.

He was one of the King’s itinerant judges, known to be active as such between the years 1295-1318. The low lying position of the land with streams flowing through it leads one to consider whether a natural phenomena, like the floods of 1315 to 1317 had anything to do with the failure of the house to survive.

From about 1862 the land was acquired by Croydon Corporation for use as a sewage farm. This was largely unsuccessful because of the heavy London Clay subsoil that makes up the majority of the site. A series of concrete channels (some of which are still visible today) were constructed to direct the sewage over the numerous lagoons but these were a failure as the lagoons would remain flooded for months without draining away.

In the 1920s a new method for the treatment of sewage had to be found so the farm was largely abandoned and a new sewage treatment works was built on the area now used for the pitch and putt course. This was shut down in 1962 and the area was left mostly undisturbed until the creation of the Country Park in 1988–99. It is still often referred to as ‚the Sewage Farm‘ by the older local residents, however, despite not having been used as such for several decades. The manager of the farm was Albert David Prior.

The years leading up to World War II brought about even more dramatic changes, with the armed forces using the area for training. During the war, the site became an A.R.P. (Air Raid Precaution) centre and the civil defence unit was also based here until the 1950s; there was even a ruined house that was specially constructed for the rescue services to practise in.

During the blitz, when hundreds of buildings were destroyed in Croydon (a heavily targeted town) and surrounding areas, much of the spoils were dumped on the land. This rubble eventually mounted up to form what is now the large hill behind the sports arena today. It is the principal viewpoint in the park and from the top of it you can see the London Docklands, Shirley Hills, Crystal Palace, Croydon, and as far east as Bromley.

The playground at South Norwood Country Park has been rebuilt since it was shut down in 2006 due to health and safety issues.

During 2008 Croydon Council constructed a lottery-funded playground in a large space which was formerly part of the pitch and putt course. The equipment is intended for children aged 4 to 14.

With a wide range of different habitats, the country park is a haven for wildlife and an important site for nature conservation. It is a Local Nature Reserve.

Many wetlands and ponds in Britain have become polluted or have disappeared, leaving the plants and animals that like wet conditions with fewer places to live. The Dragonfly Pond was built to encourage dragonflies and damselflies, and many other plants and animals such as frogs, toads and newts can be found there too. In the summer months the blue and green Emperor Dragonfly, the largest dragonfly in Britain, can be found there.

South Norwood Country Park has an excellent bird record with over 100 different species being sighted each year. The large wetlands in particular attract a wide variety of birds.



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Géolocalisation sur la carte : Cameroun

Géolocalisation sur la carte : Cameroun

Kumbo — aussi appelée Banso — est une ville du Cameroun de la région du Nord-Ouest. C’est le chef lieu du département du Bui.

La localité est située à une altitude d’environ 2 000 mètres.

Lors du recensement de 2005, la commune comptait 83 079 habitants, dont 80 212 pour Kumbo Ville.

La population de Kumbo est majoritairement d’origine nso (ou banso). La ville est connue pour ses courses de chevaux.

Outre la ville de Kumbo proprement dite, la commune comprend aussi deux villages : Tadu et Keri.

Ce musée, également connu en tant que « musée des Grassfields », fut créé en 1996 en mémoire de deux défunts artistes camerounais, Daniel Kanjo Musa et son fils aîné John, afin de préserver les sculptures sur bois qu’ils réalisèrent. Au fil des années, Mus’Art s’est développé en élargissant ses collections. Parmi les 400 objets et œuvres d’art exposés, le visiteur peut notamment admirer des masques sculptés, des statues en bois ainsi que d’autres objets réalisés par les Musa. D’autres objets présentés ont été collectés dans la région des Grassfields, tels que des instruments de musique traditionnels, des armes de chasse, des travaux en métal, des objets en bambou et des poteries. Des expositions temporaires y sont également parfois organisées.

Siège du chef suprême du peuple Nso, il s’agit du cœur de la vie social et culturelle de Kumbo. Le palais se compose de divers bâtiments traditionnels, décorés de sculptures sur bois, entourant deux cours où le Fon a coutume de siéger pour recevoir son peuple ou ses conseillers. Au centre de la première de ses cours trône la statue de Ngonso, la première reine du peuple Nso selon la légende. Autour du palais en soi, se dressent d’autres bâtiments traditionnels, également décorés de sculptures en bois. Il s’agit des sièges des sociétés sacrées chargées de seconder le Fon dans sa tâche : la société Ngwerong et la société Ngirri. Une mosquée fut également construite à leur côté, bien que la plupart des Nso soient chrétiens.

Construite dans les années 1950, cet imposant bâtiment se trouve au sommet de la colline du square, dominant ainsi la ville. La cathédrale est le siège de l’évêché de Kumbo depuis son instauration en 1983.

Le cardinal Christian Wiyghan Tumi est né à Kikaikelaki, un quartier de Kumbo, en 1930.

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